Pocketful of Sunshine – D

Lately it seems that everyone I come into contact with is Vitamin D deficient. It is estimated that 50% of the American population, 50% of kids ages 1-5 and 70% of kids ages 6-11 are deficient in this vital nutrient.   We had a lively debate about it last week in one of our nutrition sessions, as there were many opinions as to the root cause of it.  Some said “kids don’t play outside enough anymore”, some said “we wear too much sunscreen” and quite honestly, I’m not even sure we fully understand what the daily recommendations should be – it’s hard to say.

What exactly is Vitamin D?

The “Sunshine” Vitamin or as it is commonly known – Vitamin D is not a vitamin at all.  Instead it is a prohormone synthesized by the skin when it is exposed to ultraviolet rays from the sun.

Why do we need it? Vitamin D is essential for building bones. When most of us think of building bones we tend to focus on one single nutrient – calcium.  In reality it takes several nutrients including calcium, protein, magnesium, zinc, Vitamin K and oh yes, Vitamin D to build bone.  Vitamin D helps absorb calcium and phosphorus from the GI tract and moves it into our bones. Since young people are growing so rapidly, they need a lot of these nutrients every day!          

D FACTS: As Vitamin D levels are decreasing in children, we are seeing a re-emergence of the bone disorder Rickets.  Rickets causes softening and weakening of bones in children (may produce bow legs) and is caused by prolonged Vitamin D deficiency.

Rickets

 

Where do we find it? Of course the number one recommendation is to soak up the sun. Vitamin D from the sun seems to stay in the body longer than getting it from diet or supplements. Kids and teens that are active outside have a better chance of maintaining healthy Vitamin D levels.

The next best thing is from your diet.  Cod liver oil has the highest amount followed by maitake mushrooms and fatty fish.  Since plant-powered milks (think almond milk) are all the rage, they too are fortified with Vitamin D.

Lastly is to supplement. For kids and teens, the jury is still out on this. One researcher found limited benefits from giving adolescents Vitamin D supplements.

Why are we so deficient? Definitely more time spent indoors can cause it, along with reduced sun exposure from wearing protective clothing outside and increased sunscreen use.  For example, using an SPF 30 sunscreen reduces your body’s ability to manufacture and use Vitamin D by 95%. Does this mean you shouldn’t wear sunscreen? Absolutely not, the cancer risk is real. Just try to balance it out. Dark skin pigmentation, health conditions like inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, living in Northern states and lower consumption of D-rich foods (especially in teens), can also cause a deficiency.

How much do we need? It has been hypothesized that we should expose our arms and legs to between 5-30 minutes of sunlight, twice a week.  However, no official recommendations can be made, because sunlight can be impacted by pollution, the angle of the sun, latitude, your age, skin pigmentation (dark skin), time of day and other factors.  The daily dietary recommendations currently sit at 600 IU’s a day (ages 1-70) including teenagers. The endocrine society recommends a daily intake of 1,500 to 2,000 IU’s for those that are deficient. Megadoses are discouraged.

Promising research: Some speculate that Vitamin D recommendations should be significantly higher, because it has the potential to do so much more than help build bones. Small, mostly observational studies have suggested that Vitamin D may be beneficial for preventing cancer, heart disease, diabetes; Parkinson’s and even the common cold. Long-term mega studies are already in the works on this.

So with summer coming up, know that you are not only having “fun in the sun” but also are filling up your body with a good dose of Vitamin D!

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Black Garlic…if you please!

Black garlic is a 4,000 year old Korean recipe for curing garlic in order to preserve it and now their latest health trend product.  It went mainstream in the U.S. in 2008 and is growing in popularity.

BG is made by a fermentation-type process of exposing garlic to high heat and high humidity for more than a month (usually 35 days). The high heat causes what is known as a Maillard reaction* a caramelization reaction that causes the garlic to turn black.

*The Maillard reaction is a chemical reaction between an amino acid and sugar brought on by the addition of heat.  This process results in the browning or caramelization of food.  

Although this type of fermentation process does not produce “live bacteria” like probiotics, it does produce a significant amount of disease-fighting anti-oxidants. The most common one being S-allylcysteine; a water-soluble component easily absorbed by the body.

S-allylcysteine is known to naturally lower cholesterol levels, prevent strokes, work as an anti-inflammatory or immune booster and may help reduce diabetic complications.

Black garlic produces as much as 3 times the amount of anti-oxidants as regular garlic, plus it doesn’t exude the strong, “off-putting” odor!

The optimal fermentation time for BG is 21 days as that is when anti-oxidants are at their peak.  After that time, they decline a little every day up to the 35 day fermentation period.

Chefs like to use black garlic to make sauces, purees and salad dressings.  They also use it as a sandwich spread, in deviled eggs and even to make ice cream. Check out their recipes at http://www.seriouseats.com/2015/09/what-to-do-with-black-garlic.html.

Picture courtesy of restaurantgirl.com 

Fermented Vegetables

 

In sticking with our theme of gut microbe trends, I thought I would highlight a couple of probiotic powerhouses. One of the best – “fermented” vegetables.

Sauerkraut is fermented cabbage. It is high in fiber and provides a good source of iron, Vitamin C and Vitamin K. It is also considered a “cruciferous” vegetable, which have been shown to lower your risk of cancer.

Kimchi is also made from fermented cabbage. It also includes radishes, scallions and cucumbers and seasonings.  Kimchi is an excellent source of Vitamin K (64% of the daily recommended amount in a cup), iron (25% of the daily rec amt) and folate.  It also provides Vitamin C, magnesium, potassium and zinc. And since it’s a cabbage, it is also a “cruciferous” vegetable.

Pickled cucumbers, beets, onions, carrots, etc. – You get many of the vegetable benefits from these including Vitamins A and C. Plus, they have been shown to lower blood sugar, are excellent sources of anti-oxidants, help relieve muscle cramps and may treat restless leg syndrome. Just make sure it is the live, raw, fermented kind to help keep sodium levels low.

One final note:

The Vitamin C in cabbage becomes more bioavailable (more able to be digested and absorbed) when it’s fermented to become sauerkraut and kimchi. The process also creates beneficial enzymes, B-vitamins, Omega-3 fatty acids and various strains of probiotics such as Bifidobacterium and lactobacillus that improve digestion and gut health.

“Get Nutrition in Every School”

An Ounce of Nutrition is on a mission to get Nutrition in EVERY School! We challenge you to take the pledge and join us in promoting healthy choices for all students. Enter your name and email address on our website and then tell us why you think it’s important to get nutrition in every school (e.g. take the pledge) – then we’ll send you your “free” download of “HOW TO FUND YOUR NUTRITION PROGRAM” to help you bring nutrition into your school.

Why should you take the pledge?

Because……

  1. You can teach students skills that will last a lifetime!
  2. Well-nourished students are generally more focused on their school work and do better academically.
  3. Students who eat well will have more energy and be more alert in school and in life!
  4. Healthy food choices help prevent future chronic diseases like heart disease, cancer or diabetes.
  5. Kids without grumbling tummies can concentrate better.
  6. Students make better food choices when they know their food is made and where it comes from and how it impacts their health.
  7. Food and nutrition education can be integrated into any subject to help bring it to life including; math, science, history or social sciences.
  8. You may experience less behavior issues in the classroom.
  9. Well-nourished students are generally absent less.

What are other reasons you can think of?  Take the pledge and tell us why nutrition should be in every school.  Go to: http://anounceofnutrition.com/take-the-pledge.html to take the pledge.