DATA MONTH 2018: Nutrient Deficiencies in the U.S.

It’s data week! I ran across this chart below that shows nutrient deficiencies in the U.S. population and thought I would share it with you. The percentage of nutrient deficiencies may not seem that high (I actually thought they’d be even higher!), but when you compare it against the population of the U.S. (327 million) this means that about 34 million are deficient in Vitamin B6, 31 million women are deficient in Iron and 26.5 million are deficient in Vitamin D. That’s kind of a lot!

Digging a little deeper, I found that American non-Hispanic Blacks are actually the most deficient in Vitamin D (31%), followed by Mexican Americans (12%) and non-Hispanic whites (3%).

nutrientdeficiencies

Source: https://www.cdc.gov/nutritionreport/pdf/4Page_-2nd-Nutrition-Report_508_032912.pdf

I also found this data that describes the current eating patterns in the U.S.

CurrEatingPats

Sadly, though not unexpectedly, this chart shows that people in the U.S. eat plenty of added sugars, salt and fat, but not nearly enough fruits and veggies. The most shocking statistic of course is the vegetables – close to 85% of the population does not meet the daily recommended amounts for vegetables (not counting French fries of course!). And lack of fruit consumption is not too far behind them. This means that ONLY 1 in 10 people consume the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables in a day. Wow!

I can actually see a direct correlation between these two charts. What comes to mind immediately is that there is a connection between the number of fruits and vegetables that a person consumes and the percentage of nutrient deficiencies.

Low fruit and vegetable intake = Nutrient deficiencies

For example, as a country we are most deficient in Vitamin B6.  Vitamin B6 is involved in more than 100 enzyme reactions that speed up chemical reactions in our bodies; more specifically it helps us metabolize protein. It is important for brain development in children; is involved in the production of cells that help boost our immune system and is responsible for making hemoglobin to carry oxygen to our tissues. So pretty important nutrient!

Here’s a look at some good fruit and vegetable sources of Vitamin B6: DATA WEEK - Vitamin B6

As you can see, a medium potato contains about 51% of our daily recommended amount for Vitamin B6. That’s more than ½ your days’ worth! Mango, green bell peppers and sweet potatoes are not far behind and even Watermelon has over 10% of our daily recommended amount. It’s easy to meet your daily recommended amount for Vitamin B6 by consuming a couple of servings for fruits and veggies a day.

The next statistic I noticed was Vitamin C, which also has a direct correlation to fruit and vegetable consumption. Most of us know that Vitamin C is important for protecting against colds and flu, but it also is a powerful antioxidant that can protect against cancer, heal wounds and assists with the absorption of iron.

Here is a chart that shows the foods high in Vitamin C:DATA WEEK - Vitamin C

As you can see if you eat 1 medium mango a day you will be getting 161% of your daily recommended amount for Vitamin C. So, slap your hands together – case closed! You’ve exceeded your daily requirement.

Bell peppers, strawberries and oranges are also extremely high in this nutrient. You may not know it, but strawberries actually have more Vitamin C per serving than oranges. I always like to say that the orange growers did a better job of marketing!

The last nutrient I want to point out is iron.  Iron is important in preventing iron-deficiency anemia, especially for women athletes who could end up with amenorrhea (lack of menstruation) if they don’t consume enough.   Iron is a critical component needed for carrying oxygen to the lungs and around the body.  It is also used to build hair, nails and skin.

Four of the top ten sources of iron include beans, another vegetable (about 40%). If you’ve read some of my blogs in the past, you know I love beans! They are not only high in iron, but also a great source of protein and fiber. They are high in calcium, magnesium, folate and many other nutrients.  And they are naturally low in calories, fat and cholesterol. A most perfect food!

DATA WEEK - Iron

Lentils contain the most iron (42% of our daily recommended amount), followed by black beans (34%) and then adzuki beans (33%).

As you can see, consuming a wide variety of whole fruits and vegetables on a daily basis can easily help erase the nutrient deficiencies that are so prevalent in this country.  Can you think of ways to incorporate more fruits and veggies into your day?

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Gen Z – The New Food Movement

Image Source: Classy – https://www.classy.org/blog/gen-z-next-generation-donors/

There has been so much talk about Millennials lately that many have forgotten the next Generation right around the corner – Generation Z.

Generation Z are those born in 1995 or after (some say it’s more like 1996, depending on who you ask).  Some of them are teenagers, while others are in their early 20’s and are in or starting college. Either way, they are starting to shape their own food future.

This generation, even more so then millennials wants to make a difference in the world – especially their food world.

  • 60% want their work to make a difference in the world
  • 76% are worried about the planet
  • 75% of this generation consider themselves foodies

It’s no surprise as many of them are children of parents that were born in the 60’s or 70’s – the decades that started the food revolution. You know, the generation lost in space!

So what do we have to look forward to with this next generation of food enthusiasts?

Sustainable Food

#1. They care deeply about sustainability

  • Gen z’ers are a very environmentally and socially conscious generation
  • They want to know the story of their food from farm to table
  • Gen z’ers want an abundance of sustainable food that has a positive impact on people  and the planet

Heart shaped fruit

#2. They want health supporting foods

  • Gen z’ers love to snack but want healthy snack options
  • They prefer to snack on the go vs. sitting down for a meal
  • Gen z’ers have learned how to set healthy eating habits in school and at home
  • They know that whole, unprocessed foods are the more nutritious choice

They are also interested in boosting energy throughout the day – so energy drinks are on the rise!

Food acceptance

#3. They accept new foods easily

  • Gen z’ers are more likely to have been exposed to new and different foods early in life and are willing to try new ones
  • They have been exposed to foods from all over the world and enjoy them!
  • Gen z’ers are willing to at least try unusual flavors and ingredients

Teen purchasing

#4. They are starting to purchase their own food

  • Gen z’ers want foods that taste good, contain quality ingredients and are a good price
  • They care more about small, local foods vs. the big name brands
  • Gen z’ers buy from companies that share their values
  • They are willing to pay for foods that support the environment and support food companies with a social mission

MCHS Fresh Salsa Fiesta #2

#5. They love to cook!

  • Gen z’ers love to express themselves through the meals they make
  • They like to make their own creations and often do not follow a recipe
  • Gen z’ers may take pictures of their creation and share on social media
  • They generally learned how to cook at an early age

Cooking is very empowering to them!

So… any of you that educate students; you know teachers, parents community members, have this unique opportunity to help shape the food habits of this young, amazingly socially conscious generation.  You can have a conversation with them about sustainable foods or explain the benefits of choosing more whole, nutritious foods. You can bring this information to life by taking them on a tour of a farm or community garden, introducing them to more fresh and local food manufacturers or just helping them learn how to cook – a skill that lasts a lifetime!

Say it isn’t “Soy”

PART 2 OF 2

Soymilk

What the research is telling us about soy?

Of course you can certainly find studies that support your views on any topic. And the research on soy is “mucky” at best.

  • Claim #1: Soy promotes breast cancer – High levels of estrogen in the body have been linked to breast cancer because cancer cells attach to estrogen causing them to grow and multiply. Because soy contains “phyto” estrogens, some have speculated that they will have the same effect in our bodies. However, phyto-estrogens are not the same as body made estrogen. PE are naturally formed dietary estrogens found in plants. Most research indicates that soy in its “whole, organic, food” form exhibits weak estrogenic effects and does not lead to breast cancer growth or development. Instead, some studies demonstrated that it has a protective effect and may even decrease the risk of breast and other hormone-related cancers.
  • Claim #2: Soy causes hypothyroidism – Hypothyroidism occurs when your thyroid doesn’t make enough of certain kinds of hormones. This can result in severe fatigue, weight gain, a puffy face, depression and even goiters (abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland). The mineral iodine, mostly found in foods from the sea (e.g. seafood and seaweeds), but also in iodized salt is essential to produce thyroid hormones. Soy has been shown to lower the amount of iodine in our body, which eaten alone could certainly lead to hypothyroidism.  However, with the “enormous” amount of iodine consumed in most people’s diets from iodized salt, deficiency of this nutrient is rare.
  • Claim #3: Soy blocks the uptake of essential nutrients – Soy contains phytic acid (phytates), an anti-oxidant found in whole grains, beans, nuts and seeds. Phytic acid has been shown to interfere with the uptake of calcium, magnesium, copper, iron and zinc. Interestingly enough, no scientific evidence shows that this leads to deficiencies of these nutrients, so the impact is unclear. Phytic acid is also deactivated when cooked, although the degree of deactivation is debated.

In conclusion to these three claims, eating large quantities of any single food or excessive supplementation may cause imbalances or even health issues. Our best advice is to eat soy (or any other food for that matter) in moderation, so that you can incorporate other healthful foods along with it.

What is moderation for soy? The recommendations are 1-2 servings a day. 1 serving is 1 cup of soymilk or ½ cup of tofu or whole soybeans. If you are interested in the least processed soymilk possible, you can make your own.

Here is a simple recipe:

Soymilk Recipe 3

HOMEMADE SOYMILK

Serves: 4 (1 cup servings)

Ingredients:

  • ½ cup whole dried soybeans
  • 2-3 cups water for soaking beans overnight
  • 4 cups water for blending
  • 2 tablespoons vanilla
  • 1 tablespoon sea salt
  • 1 tablespoon honey

Directions:

  1. Place dried soybeans in a bowl. Cover with 2-3 cups water and soak overnight.
  2. Pour soaked beans into a colander and drain water.
  3. Rub beans between fingers to remove skins. Discard skins.
  4. Place skinned beans in a blender. Add 4 cups of water, vanilla, sea salt and honey.
  5. Blend until smooth.
  6. Strain the blended mixture by pouring it through a jelly or nut bag into a large pot.
  7. Twist the bag tightly to squeeze out the liquid completely.
  8. Pour mixture into a pitcher, let cool and then refrigerate until chilled.

Serve over oatmeal, cereal or drink plain.

The bottom line is that you can certainly find studies for or against eating soy or any other food for that matter. Easy to do! The important thing to remember is that your body is in a constant state of adding and subtracting nutrients all the time through a variety of different foods. So the key is to eat the right-size portion of a wide variety of “real” foods every day. This will add pluses that balance out the minuses to promote health and reduce deficiency.

Say it isn’t “Soy”

PART 1 OF 2

Soy Health and Nutrition

I hear from many, many, many people that they avoid soy because it’s “so dangerous!” And I think; really? How did this way of thinking start? When did this come about? After all, it’s just a bean. Well, it’s a little more complex than that, mainly because how soy is processed.

I would place soy products into 2 different categories; the highly processed kind and the minimally processed ones.

Let’s start off with the minimally processed kind:  

The minimally processed soyfoods consist of:

  • Whole non-GMO soybeans (edamame)
  • Organic soymilk
  • Organic tofu
  • Tempeh
  • Miso
  • Natto (fermented soy)

Soy in its minimally processed form has many benefits. Namely it is:

  • 41% protein – so a great source of protein!
  • Considered a “complete” protein because it contains all of the amino acids your body can use to build (e.g. muscle, tissues, hair, skin, etc.). Some of you may say that it’s low in certain amino acids, but it does still contain them.
  • Rich in isoflavones which have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties.
  • A good source of omega 3 fatty acids.
  • An excellent source of fiber.
  • Packed with iron, Vitamin C and calcium.
  • Naturally low in calories and saturated fat.
  • Loaded with B vitamins and folate.

After learning a few big points pertaining to non-processed soy products, let’s take a look at a few big points pertaining to processed soy products.

Soyfoods sales have climbed from $500 million in 1992 to $5.2 billion in 2011.

Part of the reason for its growth in popularity is that soy is highly subsidized* by the government, which means that farmers will grow a lot of it. The harvested soy needs to go somewhere, so why not create a monstrous amount of highly processed meat look-a-likes.

*Agricultural subsidy – money paid to farmers to grow a certain crop. This helps supplement their income and keep them going in times of bad weather or drought.

Examples of highly processed soy foods include:

  • Meat alternatives like veggie burgers and dogs.
  • Soybean oil
  • Soy yogurt
  • Soy formula
  • Texturized vegetable protein
  • Soy sauce

Soy is also added to meat products as a filler – “think fast food burgers” – to save on costs.

So, what is it about these highly processed versions that cause issues?

  • Soy Protein: Soy protein isolates, concentrates and texturized vegetable protein (the ingredients used to make fake-meat patties and baby formulas) are highly refined extractions from soy beans. The refining process isolates these proteins, making them more concentrated and more difficult to digest. The main concern is that they are removed from the bean using Hexane; a petroleum-based product (a result of gasoline refining – also used in cleaning products, show making, brake repair and textiles). Regular exposure to hexane may result in headaches, dizziness, headaches, eczema and even neurotoxicity (poisoning of the nervous system). Plus, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has data that indicates “hexane is a widely occurring atmospheric pollutant.”
  • GMO’s: The vast majority of soy food (91% of it is grown in the US) is genetically modified. GMO’s are plants created in a laboratory and do not occur naturally. They consist of taking the DNA or genes of a plant and combining them with genes of another organism (could be another plant, animal, virus or bacteria) in order to make it more resistant to insects, weeds and to maintain the integrity of the plant. Although “unbiased” research on GMO’s is new, we do know for sure that “cross-breeding” or genetically altering certain foods with other foods may cause allergic reactions. After the passage of a national bill, you can now tell whether or not a product has been genetically modified (small print on the back of the package, a QR code or direct consumers to a phone number or website). To avoid GMO soy, choose the organic versions or ones that are verified by the non-GMO project. **Always remember to read the labels of the foods you are putting into your body**
  • Artificial Additives: The highly refined versions of soy foods have nutrients stripped out that are replaced with a huge amount of salt and a bucket-load of artificial additives and preservatives. For example, veggie burgers and veggie hot dogs contain ingredients like modified cellulose, caramel color, corn syrup solids, dextrose, carrageenan, maltodextrin, disodium guanylate, disodium inosinate, hydrolyzed torula yeast, gum Arabic and red 40 and blue 1. Helpful tip: If you have no idea what the ingredients are in the foods that you are consuming; you may want to stay way!

 

Pocketful of Sunshine – D

Lately it seems that everyone I come into contact with is Vitamin D deficient. It is estimated that 50% of the American population, 50% of kids ages 1-5 and 70% of kids ages 6-11 are deficient in this vital nutrient.   We had a lively debate about it last week in one of our nutrition sessions, as there were many opinions as to the root cause of it.  Some said “kids don’t play outside enough anymore”, some said “we wear too much sunscreen” and quite honestly, I’m not even sure we fully understand what the daily recommendations should be – it’s hard to say.

What exactly is Vitamin D?

The “Sunshine” Vitamin or as it is commonly known – Vitamin D is not a vitamin at all.  Instead it is a prohormone synthesized by the skin when it is exposed to ultraviolet rays from the sun.

Why do we need it? Vitamin D is essential for building bones. When most of us think of building bones we tend to focus on one single nutrient – calcium.  In reality it takes several nutrients including calcium, protein, magnesium, zinc, Vitamin K and oh yes, Vitamin D to build bone.  Vitamin D helps absorb calcium and phosphorus from the GI tract and moves it into our bones. Since young people are growing so rapidly, they need a lot of these nutrients every day!          

D FACTS: As Vitamin D levels are decreasing in children, we are seeing a re-emergence of the bone disorder Rickets.  Rickets causes softening and weakening of bones in children (may produce bow legs) and is caused by prolonged Vitamin D deficiency.

Rickets

 

Where do we find it? Of course the number one recommendation is to soak up the sun. Vitamin D from the sun seems to stay in the body longer than getting it from diet or supplements. Kids and teens that are active outside have a better chance of maintaining healthy Vitamin D levels.

The next best thing is from your diet.  Cod liver oil has the highest amount followed by maitake mushrooms and fatty fish.  Since plant-powered milks (think almond milk) are all the rage, they too are fortified with Vitamin D.

Lastly is to supplement. For kids and teens, the jury is still out on this. One researcher found limited benefits from giving adolescents Vitamin D supplements.

Why are we so deficient? Definitely more time spent indoors can cause it, along with reduced sun exposure from wearing protective clothing outside and increased sunscreen use.  For example, using an SPF 30 sunscreen reduces your body’s ability to manufacture and use Vitamin D by 95%. Does this mean you shouldn’t wear sunscreen? Absolutely not, the cancer risk is real. Just try to balance it out. Dark skin pigmentation, health conditions like inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, living in Northern states and lower consumption of D-rich foods (especially in teens), can also cause a deficiency.

How much do we need? It has been hypothesized that we should expose our arms and legs to between 5-30 minutes of sunlight, twice a week.  However, no official recommendations can be made, because sunlight can be impacted by pollution, the angle of the sun, latitude, your age, skin pigmentation (dark skin), time of day and other factors.  The daily dietary recommendations currently sit at 600 IU’s a day (ages 1-70) including teenagers. The endocrine society recommends a daily intake of 1,500 to 2,000 IU’s for those that are deficient. Megadoses are discouraged.

Promising research: Some speculate that Vitamin D recommendations should be significantly higher, because it has the potential to do so much more than help build bones. Small, mostly observational studies have suggested that Vitamin D may be beneficial for preventing cancer, heart disease, diabetes; Parkinson’s and even the common cold. Long-term mega studies are already in the works on this.

So with summer coming up, know that you are not only having “fun in the sun” but also are filling up your body with a good dose of Vitamin D!

Black Garlic…if you please!

Black garlic is a 4,000 year old Korean recipe for curing garlic in order to preserve it and now their latest health trend product.  It went mainstream in the U.S. in 2008 and is growing in popularity.

BG is made by a fermentation-type process of exposing garlic to high heat and high humidity for more than a month (usually 35 days). The high heat causes what is known as a Maillard reaction* a caramelization reaction that causes the garlic to turn black.

*The Maillard reaction is a chemical reaction between an amino acid and sugar brought on by the addition of heat.  This process results in the browning or caramelization of food.  

Although this type of fermentation process does not produce “live bacteria” like probiotics, it does produce a significant amount of disease-fighting anti-oxidants. The most common one being S-allylcysteine; a water-soluble component easily absorbed by the body.

S-allylcysteine is known to naturally lower cholesterol levels, prevent strokes, work as an anti-inflammatory or immune booster and may help reduce diabetic complications.

Black garlic produces as much as 3 times the amount of anti-oxidants as regular garlic, plus it doesn’t exude the strong, “off-putting” odor!

The optimal fermentation time for BG is 21 days as that is when anti-oxidants are at their peak.  After that time, they decline a little every day up to the 35 day fermentation period.

Chefs like to use black garlic to make sauces, purees and salad dressings.  They also use it as a sandwich spread, in deviled eggs and even to make ice cream. Check out their recipes at http://www.seriouseats.com/2015/09/what-to-do-with-black-garlic.html.

Picture courtesy of restaurantgirl.com 

Fermented Vegetables

 

In sticking with our theme of gut microbe trends, I thought I would highlight a couple of probiotic powerhouses. One of the best – “fermented” vegetables.

Sauerkraut is fermented cabbage. It is high in fiber and provides a good source of iron, Vitamin C and Vitamin K. It is also considered a “cruciferous” vegetable, which have been shown to lower your risk of cancer.

Kimchi is also made from fermented cabbage. It also includes radishes, scallions and cucumbers and seasonings.  Kimchi is an excellent source of Vitamin K (64% of the daily recommended amount in a cup), iron (25% of the daily rec amt) and folate.  It also provides Vitamin C, magnesium, potassium and zinc. And since it’s a cabbage, it is also a “cruciferous” vegetable.

Pickled cucumbers, beets, onions, carrots, etc. – You get many of the vegetable benefits from these including Vitamins A and C. Plus, they have been shown to lower blood sugar, are excellent sources of anti-oxidants, help relieve muscle cramps and may treat restless leg syndrome. Just make sure it is the live, raw, fermented kind to help keep sodium levels low.

One final note:

The Vitamin C in cabbage becomes more bioavailable (more able to be digested and absorbed) when it’s fermented to become sauerkraut and kimchi. The process also creates beneficial enzymes, B-vitamins, Omega-3 fatty acids and various strains of probiotics such as Bifidobacterium and lactobacillus that improve digestion and gut health.

“Live Active Cultures”

Gut Microbes (con’t) – So, I’m asked all the time, how can you tell  which is the best probiotic supplement to take?  First of all you want one that contains “live cultures.” It should state it somewhere on the package label.  Secondly, choose a refrigerated kind, because the cultures in an unrefrigerated kind tend to die off fairly quickly making them ineffective. And lastly consume at a supplement with at least 1 billion live bacterial cultures – 250 billion would be at the top of the range.

But what if you don’t want to spend the hefty price-tag that goes along with these supplements? Try getting them from whole, “real” foods.

Most people have heard of consuming yogurt as a way to get probiotics. If you are buying yogurt, the same is true as in supplements.  Make sure that you look for the words “contains active cultures” or “living cultures” on the carton. The probiotics in yogurt that have been treated with heat will most probably be killed off and therefore ineffective.

*Live and active cultures refer to the living organisms Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus, which convert pasteurized milk to yogurt during fermentation. All yogurts are required to be made with these two cultures. In heat-treated yogurt, these cultures are killed during post-fermentation heating. Source: http://aboutyogurt.com/index.asp?bid=28#Q3

Some studies have suggested that you will need to consume several cartons of live active yogurt to have any effect, so eating fermented vegetables may be a better option. If you can; purchase them from a local food source. Heating bacteria (as in commercially produced fermented vegetables) kills it in the manufacturing process, so even though it keeps them shelf stable – it has no probiotic effect.  Pasteurizing also kills bacteria. So those yummy dill pickles you find on your store shelf, may certainly taste good, but offer little or no ‘good’ bacterium value.

For best probiotic results, choose raw, uncooked, unpasteurized fermented vegetables.

More to come on probiotics later this week….

Gut Microbes

Several years ago, I had a very bad bacterial infection that lasted 9 months and was finally cured with Chinese medicine, a clear liquid diet and a very healthy dose of probiotics.  So I am a big fan! I’ve seen them work wonders with some of my clients and I’m glad to see that a lot of hospitals are now recommending them to patients – BUT they need to be the right kind.

GUT MICROBES the next frontier in health and nutrition research. In other words, how does the good and bad bacteria in our guts impact our physical and mental health? Fascinating stuff!

We feed our guts “good” bacteria or probiotics when we consume fermented foods.  This includes the German “sauerkraut”, the Korean “kimchi” and the Japanese “tempeh, miso and natto.” Not the commercially produced ones, but the “live, raw and unpasteurized” types.

Fermentation is the process in which a substance breaks down into a simpler substance. Microorganisms like yeast and bacteria usually play a role in the fermentation process, creating beer, wine, bread, kimchi, yogurt and other foods. Source: https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/fermentation

SPECIES AND STRAINS

There are several different species of probiotics and they all play different roles. The two most common types are lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Each species contains a variety of different strains. So for example, when you see the words L. acidophilus – L is the lactobacillus species and acidophilus is the strain. The primary dietary sources of this strain are yogurt, miso and tempeh.

BENEFITS

The biggest benefit that we know of is that they shorten the duration of acute infectious diarrhea – diarrhea caused by a bacterial infection and diarrhea associated with antibiotic use.  Who remembers taking antibiotics and then being told to counter-act them with a big bowl of yogurt?  Probiotics is the reason.

They help reduce bloating and gas in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and boost our immune system. Preliminary studies have shown that they may be beneficial in promoting weight loss (although this may be because it helps you absorb food), improve good oral and mental health.  More research is needed to confirm these benefits.

To learn more about probiotics – stay tuned for more blog posts this week.

http://www.anounceofnutrition.com

“Get Nutrition in Every School”

An Ounce of Nutrition is on a mission to get Nutrition in EVERY School! We challenge you to take the pledge and join us in promoting healthy choices for all students. Enter your name and email address on our website and then tell us why you think it’s important to get nutrition in every school (e.g. take the pledge) – then we’ll send you your “free” download of “HOW TO FUND YOUR NUTRITION PROGRAM” to help you bring nutrition into your school.

Why should you take the pledge?

Because……

  1. You can teach students skills that will last a lifetime!
  2. Well-nourished students are generally more focused on their school work and do better academically.
  3. Students who eat well will have more energy and be more alert in school and in life!
  4. Healthy food choices help prevent future chronic diseases like heart disease, cancer or diabetes.
  5. Kids without grumbling tummies can concentrate better.
  6. Students make better food choices when they know their food is made and where it comes from and how it impacts their health.
  7. Food and nutrition education can be integrated into any subject to help bring it to life including; math, science, history or social sciences.
  8. You may experience less behavior issues in the classroom.
  9. Well-nourished students are generally absent less.

What are other reasons you can think of?  Take the pledge and tell us why nutrition should be in every school.  Go to: http://anounceofnutrition.com/take-the-pledge.html to take the pledge.