Say it isn’t “Soy”

PART 1 OF 2

Soy Health and Nutrition

I hear from many, many, many people that they avoid soy because it’s “so dangerous!” And I think; really? How did this way of thinking start? When did this come about? After all, it’s just a bean. Well, it’s a little more complex than that, mainly because how soy is processed.

I would place soy products into 2 different categories; the highly processed kind and the minimally processed ones.

Let’s start off with the minimally processed kind:  

The minimally processed soyfoods consist of:

  • Whole non-GMO soybeans (edamame)
  • Organic soymilk
  • Organic tofu
  • Tempeh
  • Miso
  • Natto (fermented soy)

Soy in its minimally processed form has many benefits. Namely it is:

  • 41% protein – so a great source of protein!
  • Considered a “complete” protein because it contains all of the amino acids your body can use to build (e.g. muscle, tissues, hair, skin, etc.). Some of you may say that it’s low in certain amino acids, but it does still contain them.
  • Rich in isoflavones which have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties.
  • A good source of omega 3 fatty acids.
  • An excellent source of fiber.
  • Packed with iron, Vitamin C and calcium.
  • Naturally low in calories and saturated fat.
  • Loaded with B vitamins and folate.

After learning a few big points pertaining to non-processed soy products, let’s take a look at a few big points pertaining to processed soy products.

Soyfoods sales have climbed from $500 million in 1992 to $5.2 billion in 2011.

Part of the reason for its growth in popularity is that soy is highly subsidized* by the government, which means that farmers will grow a lot of it. The harvested soy needs to go somewhere, so why not create a monstrous amount of highly processed meat look-a-likes.

*Agricultural subsidy – money paid to farmers to grow a certain crop. This helps supplement their income and keep them going in times of bad weather or drought.

Examples of highly processed soy foods include:

  • Meat alternatives like veggie burgers and dogs.
  • Soybean oil
  • Soy yogurt
  • Soy formula
  • Texturized vegetable protein
  • Soy sauce

Soy is also added to meat products as a filler – “think fast food burgers” – to save on costs.

So, what is it about these highly processed versions that cause issues?

  • Soy Protein: Soy protein isolates, concentrates and texturized vegetable protein (the ingredients used to make fake-meat patties and baby formulas) are highly refined extractions from soy beans. The refining process isolates these proteins, making them more concentrated and more difficult to digest. The main concern is that they are removed from the bean using Hexane; a petroleum-based product (a result of gasoline refining – also used in cleaning products, show making, brake repair and textiles). Regular exposure to hexane may result in headaches, dizziness, headaches, eczema and even neurotoxicity (poisoning of the nervous system). Plus, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has data that indicates “hexane is a widely occurring atmospheric pollutant.”
  • GMO’s: The vast majority of soy food (91% of it is grown in the US) is genetically modified. GMO’s are plants created in a laboratory and do not occur naturally. They consist of taking the DNA or genes of a plant and combining them with genes of another organism (could be another plant, animal, virus or bacteria) in order to make it more resistant to insects, weeds and to maintain the integrity of the plant. Although “unbiased” research on GMO’s is new, we do know for sure that “cross-breeding” or genetically altering certain foods with other foods may cause allergic reactions. After the passage of a national bill, you can now tell whether or not a product has been genetically modified (small print on the back of the package, a QR code or direct consumers to a phone number or website). To avoid GMO soy, choose the organic versions or ones that are verified by the non-GMO project. **Always remember to read the labels of the foods you are putting into your body**
  • Artificial Additives: The highly refined versions of soy foods have nutrients stripped out that are replaced with a huge amount of salt and a bucket-load of artificial additives and preservatives. For example, veggie burgers and veggie hot dogs contain ingredients like modified cellulose, caramel color, corn syrup solids, dextrose, carrageenan, maltodextrin, disodium guanylate, disodium inosinate, hydrolyzed torula yeast, gum Arabic and red 40 and blue 1. Helpful tip: If you have no idea what the ingredients are in the foods that you are consuming; you may want to stay way!

 

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Pocketful of Sunshine – D

Lately it seems that everyone I come into contact with is Vitamin D deficient. It is estimated that 50% of the American population, 50% of kids ages 1-5 and 70% of kids ages 6-11 are deficient in this vital nutrient.   We had a lively debate about it last week in one of our nutrition sessions, as there were many opinions as to the root cause of it.  Some said “kids don’t play outside enough anymore”, some said “we wear too much sunscreen” and quite honestly, I’m not even sure we fully understand what the daily recommendations should be – it’s hard to say.

What exactly is Vitamin D?

The “Sunshine” Vitamin or as it is commonly known – Vitamin D is not a vitamin at all.  Instead it is a prohormone synthesized by the skin when it is exposed to ultraviolet rays from the sun.

Why do we need it? Vitamin D is essential for building bones. When most of us think of building bones we tend to focus on one single nutrient – calcium.  In reality it takes several nutrients including calcium, protein, magnesium, zinc, Vitamin K and oh yes, Vitamin D to build bone.  Vitamin D helps absorb calcium and phosphorus from the GI tract and moves it into our bones. Since young people are growing so rapidly, they need a lot of these nutrients every day!          

D FACTS: As Vitamin D levels are decreasing in children, we are seeing a re-emergence of the bone disorder Rickets.  Rickets causes softening and weakening of bones in children (may produce bow legs) and is caused by prolonged Vitamin D deficiency.

Rickets

 

Where do we find it? Of course the number one recommendation is to soak up the sun. Vitamin D from the sun seems to stay in the body longer than getting it from diet or supplements. Kids and teens that are active outside have a better chance of maintaining healthy Vitamin D levels.

The next best thing is from your diet.  Cod liver oil has the highest amount followed by maitake mushrooms and fatty fish.  Since plant-powered milks (think almond milk) are all the rage, they too are fortified with Vitamin D.

Lastly is to supplement. For kids and teens, the jury is still out on this. One researcher found limited benefits from giving adolescents Vitamin D supplements.

Why are we so deficient? Definitely more time spent indoors can cause it, along with reduced sun exposure from wearing protective clothing outside and increased sunscreen use.  For example, using an SPF 30 sunscreen reduces your body’s ability to manufacture and use Vitamin D by 95%. Does this mean you shouldn’t wear sunscreen? Absolutely not, the cancer risk is real. Just try to balance it out. Dark skin pigmentation, health conditions like inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, living in Northern states and lower consumption of D-rich foods (especially in teens), can also cause a deficiency.

How much do we need? It has been hypothesized that we should expose our arms and legs to between 5-30 minutes of sunlight, twice a week.  However, no official recommendations can be made, because sunlight can be impacted by pollution, the angle of the sun, latitude, your age, skin pigmentation (dark skin), time of day and other factors.  The daily dietary recommendations currently sit at 600 IU’s a day (ages 1-70) including teenagers. The endocrine society recommends a daily intake of 1,500 to 2,000 IU’s for those that are deficient. Megadoses are discouraged.

Promising research: Some speculate that Vitamin D recommendations should be significantly higher, because it has the potential to do so much more than help build bones. Small, mostly observational studies have suggested that Vitamin D may be beneficial for preventing cancer, heart disease, diabetes; Parkinson’s and even the common cold. Long-term mega studies are already in the works on this.

So with summer coming up, know that you are not only having “fun in the sun” but also are filling up your body with a good dose of Vitamin D!

Black Garlic…if you please!

Black garlic is a 4,000 year old Korean recipe for curing garlic in order to preserve it and now their latest health trend product.  It went mainstream in the U.S. in 2008 and is growing in popularity.

BG is made by a fermentation-type process of exposing garlic to high heat and high humidity for more than a month (usually 35 days). The high heat causes what is known as a Maillard reaction* a caramelization reaction that causes the garlic to turn black.

*The Maillard reaction is a chemical reaction between an amino acid and sugar brought on by the addition of heat.  This process results in the browning or caramelization of food.  

Although this type of fermentation process does not produce “live bacteria” like probiotics, it does produce a significant amount of disease-fighting anti-oxidants. The most common one being S-allylcysteine; a water-soluble component easily absorbed by the body.

S-allylcysteine is known to naturally lower cholesterol levels, prevent strokes, work as an anti-inflammatory or immune booster and may help reduce diabetic complications.

Black garlic produces as much as 3 times the amount of anti-oxidants as regular garlic, plus it doesn’t exude the strong, “off-putting” odor!

The optimal fermentation time for BG is 21 days as that is when anti-oxidants are at their peak.  After that time, they decline a little every day up to the 35 day fermentation period.

Chefs like to use black garlic to make sauces, purees and salad dressings.  They also use it as a sandwich spread, in deviled eggs and even to make ice cream. Check out their recipes at http://www.seriouseats.com/2015/09/what-to-do-with-black-garlic.html.

Picture courtesy of restaurantgirl.com